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Streamlining Your Workflow: Adopting Automated Planning

Automated Planning and Scheduling: Revolutionizing the Way We Do Things

Do you know how your day is going to look like? Most of us have a plan in our minds, or even better, a schedule written down. We know what we need to do and when we need to do it.

Now, think about someone who manages a construction project, a factory, or a transportation network. They have to make sure that dozens of people, machines, and resources are coordinated and working towards common goals. This becomes more difficult as the size and complexity of the operation increase.

Automated planning and scheduling (APS) is an exciting field that is tackling this challenge. APS refers to systems that generate plans and schedules automatically, based on input data and optimization criteria. These systems are used in various domains, such as manufacturing, logistics, health care, and space exploration.

In this article, I will explain what APS is, how it works, and what benefits it offers. I will also share some real-life examples to illustrate its impact. Let’s dive in!

What is Automated Planning and Scheduling?

Planning is the process of deciding what goals to achieve and how to achieve them. Scheduling is the process of allocating resources and activities over time to achieve the goals. Both planning and scheduling involve making decisions under uncertainty and constraints.

Automated planning and scheduling (APS) is the use of computer algorithms and models to generate plans and schedules automatically. APS systems take as input the goals, resources, constraints, and preferences of a problem domain, and use optimization techniques to produce a plan or schedule that satisfies the criteria.

APS is a subfield of artificial intelligence (AI) and operations research (OR). It draws on techniques such as constraint programming, mixed-integer programming, evolutionary algorithms, and machine learning. APS systems can handle various types of constraints, such as time, space, capacity, quality, and preference.

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APS systems can be classified into two categories: centralized and distributed. Centralized APS systems generate plans and schedules for a single entity, such as a factory or a hospital. Distributed APS systems generate plans and schedules for multiple entities that interact with each other, such as a transportation network or a supply chain.

How Does Automated Planning and Scheduling Work?

The basic workflow of an APS system is as follows:

1. Define the problem domain: This involves specifying the goals, resources, constraints, and preferences of the problem domain, and defining the optimization criteria. The problem domain can be modeled using various formalisms, such as state-transition systems, Petri nets, or constraint networks.

2. Generate a model: This involves constructing a mathematical representation of the problem domain, using variables, constraints, and objectives. The model can be formulated as a constraint satisfaction problem (CSP), a mixed-integer programming (MIP) problem, or a Markov decision process (MDP).

3. Solve the model: This involves using an optimization engine to find a solution that satisfies the criteria. The optimization engine can be a constraint solver, a linear or nonlinear optimizer, or a reinforcement learning algorithm. The solution can be represented as a plan, a schedule, or a policy.

4. Validate and execute the solution: This involves checking the feasibility and quality of the solution, and executing it in the real world. The solution can be validated using simulation, verification, or monitoring techniques. The execution can be done manually or automatically, depending on the level of autonomy and safety required.

APS systems can be designed to support various levels of user interaction and control. Some systems are fully autonomous, meaning that they generate and execute plans and schedules without human intervention. Other systems are semi-autonomous, meaning that they generate plans and schedules that require human approval or adjustment before execution.

What Benefits Does Automated Planning and Scheduling Offer?

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APS systems offer many benefits to organizations that use them. Some of the key benefits are:

1. Improved efficiency: APS systems can generate plans and schedules that optimize the use of resources and minimize waste. They can allocate tasks and activities to the most suitable and available resources, and avoid conflicts and bottlenecks. This leads to faster and cheaper delivery of products and services.

2. Increased flexibility: APS systems can adapt to changing conditions and requirements. They can generate contingency plans and reschedule activities on the fly. They can also incorporate feedback from sensors, customers, and stakeholders, and adjust the plans and schedules accordingly. This leads to better responsiveness and agility.

3. Enhanced quality: APS systems can ensure that the plans and schedules meet the quality and safety standards. They can enforce rules and regulations, and prevent violations and errors. They can also optimize the quality parameters, such as reliability, durability, and performance. This leads to better customer satisfaction and reputation.

4. Reduced risk: APS systems can identify and mitigate risks and uncertainties in the planning and scheduling process. They can perform sensitivity analysis and what-if scenarios, and quantify the impacts of different decisions and events. They can also detect and handle exceptions and disruptions, and recover from failures and delays. This leads to higher resilience and reliability.

Real-Life Examples of Automated Planning and Scheduling

APS systems are being used in various domains to improve productivity, efficiency, and quality. Here are some real-life examples:

1. Manufacturing: APS systems are used to generate production plans and schedules that balance the demand and supply of products while minimizing inventory and cost. For example, Bosch Rexroth, a manufacturer of hydraulic and electric drives, uses APS to optimize the production of over 50,000 product variants across multiple plants and countries, resulting in a significant reduction in lead times and inventory costs.

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2. Health Care: APS systems are used to generate patient schedules and resource allocation plans that optimize the use of hospital and staff resources while minimizing waiting times and costs. For example, ORTEMS, a French provider of APS solutions, uses APS to optimize the scheduling of surgeries and other interventions in over 150 hospitals and clinics, resulting in a reduction of waiting times and cancellations.

3. Transportation: APS systems are used to generate transportation plans and schedules that optimize the use of vehicles and routes while minimizing congestion and emissions. For example, TransLink, a public transportation provider in Vancouver, Canada, uses APS to optimize the scheduling of buses and trains, resulting in a reduction of travel time and carbon footprint.

4. Space Exploration: APS systems are used to generate mission plans and schedules that optimize the allocation of resources and activities while maximizing the scientific and engineering objectives. For example, NASA uses APS to plan and schedule the operations of the Mars rovers, the International Space Station, and other space missions, resulting in a better understanding of the universe and the Earth.


Automated planning and scheduling is a powerful technology that is transforming the way we do things. APS systems can generate plans and schedules that optimize the use of resources, improve quality, and reduce risk. They can be applied in various domains, from manufacturing to space exploration. APS is still a challenging and evolving field, but it holds great promise for the future. Who knows, maybe one day, our daily schedules will be generated automatically, too!


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